ไทยดำรำพัน

ไทยดำรำพัน : บุปผา สายชล

 

 

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ไทยดำ – ไทยทรงดำ – ลาวโซ่ง 

ตระกูลภาษาไท-กะได (Tai-Kadai Language Family) 

ความเป็นมาของชาวไทดำ จังหวัดเลย นับเป็นเมืองเก่าที่มีความเป็นมาสืบสานวัฒนธรรมรักษา ภูมิปัญญา และมีกลุ่มชาติพันธุ์ นอกจากชาวไทยเลย แล้วยังมีชนชาติพันธุ์ต่างๆ อาศัยอยู่ ที่สำคัญคือ กลุ่มชนเชื้อสายไทดำ เป็นชนกลุ่มหนึ่งที่มีความสัมพันธุ์ใกล้ชิดกับคนพื้นเมืองเลย โดยตั้งถิ่นฐานอยู่ปะปนกัน อยู่ในเขตอำเภอเชียงคาน จังหวัดเลยนานมาแล้ว สำหรับความเป็นมาของหมู่บ้านไทดำ นับตั้งแต่สมัยที่มีการแย่งชิงดินแดนแคว้นต่างๆ ทางตอนเหนือของประเทศลาว ซึ่งเรียกว่าแคว้น ๑๒ จุไทย 

ชาวไทดำ อพยพมาจากแคว้นพวน สาธารณรัฐประชาธิปไตยประชาชนลาว ในปัจจุบัน เข้ามาในประเทศไทย ในปี พ.ศ. ๒๔๑๗ เนื่องจากมีเหตุการณ์ พวกฮ่อยกกำลังมาตีเมืองเชียงขวาง ซึ่งเป็นหัวเมืองสำคัญในแคว้นพวน ทางหลวงพระบาง ขอให้ฝ่ายไทยส่งกองทัพไปช่วยเหลือ โดยมีพระยาภูธราภัย เป็นแม่ทัพคุมกองทัพไปปราบฮ่อ ผลการปราบฮ่อครั้งนั้นไทยชนะ เมื่อเหตุการณ์สงบไทยได้ใช้นโยบายอพยพผู้คนจากแคว้นพวนเข้ามายังประเทศไทยด้วย ชาวไทดำถูกกวาดต้อนมาถึงกรุงเทพฯ โดยทำมาหากินตามที่ต่าง ๆ เช่น เพชรบุรี ราชบุรี ลพบุรี สุพรรณบุรี และพิษณุโลก ภายหลังพระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว โปรดเกล้าโปรดกระหม่อม ให้ไปตั้งหลักแหล่งที่บ้านหมี่ คลองสนามแจง จังหวัดลพบุรี หลังจากนั้นประมาณ ๘ ปี เจ้าเมืองบริขันธ์ มาทูลขอราษฎรกลับไปยังเมืองเชียงขวางตามเดิม โดยเริ่มอพยพลงมาตามเส้นทางเรื่อยๆ จนได้มาพักที่บ้านน้ำกอใหญ่ อำเภอหล่มเก่า จังหวัดเพชรบูรณ์ ในขณะเดียวกันฝรั่งเศสก็เข้าครอบครองดินแดนล้านช้าง และได้ขอให้ไทยส่งคนอพยพคืนสู่ภูมิลำเนาเดิม ชาวไทยดำบางส่วนเห็นว่าต้องบุกป่าฝ่าดง จึงขอหยุดตั้งหลักแหล่งที่บ้านนาป่าหนาด อ.เชียงคาน จ.เลย ส่วนชาวไทดำ อีกกลุ่มหนึ่งได้เดินทางข้ามแม่น้ำโขงไปยังบ้านน้ำกุ่ม แขวงเวียงจันทน์ แต่ในขณะนั้นเขตเวียงจันทน์ มีปัญหาการเจรจากับฝรั่งเศส ชาวไทดำจึงข้ามแม่น้ำโขงย้อนกลับมาตั้งหมู่บ้านที่ตาดซ้อ ต.เขาแก้ว อ.เชียงคาน จ.เลย อยู่ได้ระยะหนึ่ง จึงอพยพมาตั้งถิ่นฐานที่บ้านนาเบน แต่ภูมิประเทศไม่เหมาะแก่การดำรงชีพ จึงได้อพยพมาตั้งหลักแหล่งถาวรที่หมู่บ้านนาป่าหนาด ต.เขาแก้ว อ.เชียงคาน จ.เลย ด้วยกัน เพราะสภาพเป็นที่ดอนน้ำท่วมไม่ถึงมีป่าเขาลำเนาไพรคล้ายถิ่นฐานเดิม เมื่อปี พ.ศ.๒๔๓๘ โดยมีจำนวนครัวเรือนในขณะนั้น ๑๕ หลัง ปัจจุบันชาวไทดำ มีจำนวน ๘๒๕ ครัวเรือน ส่วนใหญ่ประกอบอาชีพในทางการเกษตรกรรม 

นอกจากนี้ยังมีชาวไทดำ หรือ ไทยทรงดำ หรือ ลาวโซ่ง ทางด้าน จ.เพชรบุรี ซึ่งได้เดินทางเข้ามาสู่ประเทศไทยตั้งแต่สมัยพระเจ้ากรุงธนบุรี โดยอพอพมาจากเมืองแถง ประเทศเวียตนาม ต่อมาในสมัยรัชกาลที่ ๑ และรัชกาลที่ ๓ แห่งกรุงรัตนโกสินทร์โปรดเกล้าฯ ให้ลาวโซ่งล่องเรือมาอยู่ที่ ต.ท่าแร้ง อ.บ้านแหลม จ.เพชร บุรี โดยลาวโซ่งยังได้ตั้งถิ่นฐานกระจัดกระจายอยู่ใน จ.เพชรบุรี และจังหวัดใกล้เคียงอีกด้วย 

ไทดำมีวัฒนธรรมที่เป็นเอกลักษณ์ของตนเอง เช่นภาษาพูด และภาษาเขียน อาชีพ การแต่งกาย ขนบธรรมเนียมประเพณี พิธีกรรมต่างๆ การดำรงชีวิตประจำวันยังคงผูกพันกับประเพณี พิธีกรรมและความ เชื่อดั้งเดิมอยู่เป็นอันมากลักษณะทางสังคมของไทดำยังคงรักษาขนบธรรมเนียมจารีตประเพณีและพิธีกรรม ไว้อย่างเคร่งครัด ซึ่งเป็นปัจจัยสำคัญในความเป็นปึกแผ่นและการดำรงเอกลักษณ์ของกลุ่มชาติพันธุ์ 

ขอขอบคุณข้อมูล จาก http://www.surinmajestic.net/index.php?lay=show&ac=article&Id=332914








** ภาพ ** อำเภอเชียงคาน จ.เลย

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